The genus Hysterobrevium E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
Studies in Mycology 64: 62 (2009).

By Eric W.A. Boehm

The genus Hysterobrevium (Clade A). A-E. Hysterobrevium constrictum (SMH 5211.1 [F], New Zealand).
F-I. Hysterobrevium smilacis (GKM 426N [EA], Kenya). L-N. Hysterobrevium mori (SMH 5273 [BPI 879787], USA).
O-R. Hysterobrevium mori (ANM 43 [ILLS], USA). Scale bar (habitat) = 500 μm; Scale bar (spores and asci) = 10 μm.
Fig. 5 from Boehm et al. 2009b.

Hysterobrevium E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, gen. nov. MycoBank MB515329.

TypeHysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, comb. nov.

Etymology: Hystero- from Hysterographium, Latin brevis, short, referring to the spores of the type, Hb. mori.

Hysterothecia navicularia, fissura longitudinali prominente praedita, utrinque acuminata vel obtusa, linearia vel flexuosa, solitaria vel gregaria, vulgo per longitudinem striata, nonnumquam erecta, quasi stipitata, superficialia vel partim in substrato immersa. Asci bitunicati, cyindrici vel clavati. Dictyosporae pigmentatae vel hyalinae, plerumque breviores quam 25 µm, ad septum medium constrictae; ascosporae hyalinae vel luteae iuvenes vulgo strato mucido circumdatae; pigmentatae pallide brunneae, pariete levi; ascosporae ovoideae vel obovoideae, apice obtuso vel acuminato, 3-4(-6) septis transversalibus et 1-2 longitudinalibus divisae.

Hysterothecia navicular, with a prominent longitudinal slit, variable with acuminate to obtuse ends, linear to flexuous, solitary to densely gregarious, surface usually longitudinally striate, sometimes erect, superficial, almost stipitate, to erumpent and partially embedded in substrate, the latter especially when gregarious. Asci bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate. Ascospores pigmented or hyaline dictyospores, usually less than 25 μm long, constricted at least at the median septum. If hyaline to pale-yellow, then typically associated with a gelatinous sheath when young, dissipating with age. If pigmented then lightly so, transparent clear brown, walls smooth; ascospores generally ovoid to obovoid, with either obtuse or acuminate ends, 3-4(-6) transverse septa, and 1-2 longitudinal septa, these mostly associated with the two central cells, but highly variable and sometimes at oblique angles in the end cells.

As the taxonomy of HysterographiumHysterobrevium and Gloniopsis is currently in flux, we chose to provide the following dichotomous key, whereby all hysteriaceous fungi, bearing transversely and longitudinally septate dictyospores, whether pigmented or hyaline, are identified together, with the caveat that unrelated taxa share the same key.


Key to the species of Hysterographium, Hysterobrevium and Gloniopsis


  1. Dictyospores, usually shorter than 25 μm →  2
  2. Dictyospores mostly longer than 25 μm →  6


  1. Dictyospores pigmented, thin-walled, fragile, pronouncedly arcuate or bent, 3-5(-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, which are mostly associated with the mid-cells, these much larger and swollen than the end-cells, no septal constrictions, (10-)12-18(-22) x 6-10 µm; Kenya →  Gloniopsis arciformis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch
  2. Not with the above combination of characters →  3


  1. Dictyospores hyaline at maturity →  4
  2. Dictyospores pigmented at maturity →  5


  1. Dictyospores highly symmetric in outline and septation, with thickened walls, gelatinous sheath present when young, absent at maturity, (1-)3(-4)-septate, with 1(-2) vertical septa, that may pass through one to two cells; (11-)13-20(-23) x 5-12 μm; Japan, New Zealand →  Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores asymmetric, with acuminate ends, with a gelatinous sheath when young, mostly 3-5(-9)-septate and  with 1(-3) vertical septa, passing through multiple mid-cells, prominently constricted at the median septum, sometimes constriced at multiple septa, (13-)15-26(-31) x (4-)5-9(-10) μm; cosmopolitan →  Hysterobrevium smilacis  (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch


  1. Dictyospores thin-walled, obovoid, with obtuse ends, 3-(5-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, usually associated with mid-cells, but occasionally present obliquely in end-cells, constricted at the median septum, sometimes at additional septa, (12-)14-22(-26) x (5-)7-10(-11) μm; cosmopolitan →   Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores thin-walled, very fragile, obovoid, 3(-4[rarely])-septate, highly gutulate when young, spore apices asymmetric, the upper obtuse, the lower acuminate and sometimes drawn out, often with oblique septa in end cell(s), hardly constricted at the septa, measuring (12-)15-18(-19) x 5-7(-8) μm; Kenya →   Gloniopsis kenyensis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch


  1. Red pigment present in hamathecium and/or centrum; dictyospores pigmented →   7
  2. No red pigment present, spores pigmented or hyaline →   8


  1. Dictyospores, 22-25(-27) x 5-6 μm, with (5-)6 transverse and 1 vertical septum in either cell or both cells adjacent to the primary septum; typically with red pigment in the hamathecium; neotropical (Costa Rica) →   Oedohysterium pulchrum (Checa, Shoemaker & Umaña) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch

Note: Od. pulchrum is accommodated in the genus Oedohysterium and is present in both keys.

  1. Dictyospores 25-28 x 11-13 μm, with 5-6 transverse and mostly one longitudinal septum; hamathecium brick-red; on Acaciathorns, South Africa →   Hysterographium spinicola Doidge


  1. Dictyospores hyaline or turning brown tardily →   9
  2. Dictyospores pigmented in the ascus →   10


  1. Dictyospores hyaline turning yellow in age, obovoid, ends usually obtuse, 5-7(-10)-septate, with 2-3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the median and often other septa, gelatinous sheath when young, (16-)20-32(-34) x (6-)9-12(-15) μm; cosmopolitan →   Gloniopsis praelonga (Schwein.) Underw. & Earle 
  2. Ascospores irregularly biseriate, ellipsoid, hyaline but becoming brown tardily, with the upper half generally wider than the lower half, sometimes surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, with 7-13 transverse and 1-3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the median transverse septum; 25-49 x 8-17 μm; Japan →   Gloniopsis macrospora N. Amano


  1. Dictyospores usually less than 38 µm long →   11
  2. Dictyospores 30-80 μm long →   12


  1. Dictyospores (22-)25-34(-45) x (6-)8-12(-17) μm, mostly with 7-11 transverse and 1-2 vertical septa; cosmopolitan →   Gloniopsis subrugosa(Cooke & Ellis) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores 26-38 x 10-15 μm, with 6-13 transverse and 1-3 vertical septa, obovoid, ends obtuse; Japan →   Hysterographium minus N. Amano


  1. Dictyospores (25-)30-45(-51) x (10-)12-15(-22) μm, with 7-9 transverse and 2-3 vertical septa, obovoid, ends obtuse; cosmopolitan →   Hysterographium fraxini (Pers. : Fr.) De Not.

Note: Hysterographium fraxini, the type species for the genus Hysterographium, lies outside of the Hysteriaceae, as Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis (Boehm et al. 2009).

  1. Ascospore outline ellipsoid, fusoid, ends slightly acuminate, (30-)40-65(-80) x (8-)10-18(-19) μm, with 7-15 transverse and 1-3 vertical septa; cosmopolitan →   Hysterographium flexuosum (Schwein.) Sacc. 



Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, comb. nov. MycoBank MB515335.


BasionymHysterium mori Schwein., Trans. Amer. Philosoph. Soc. 4(2): 244 (1832).

≡ Hysterographium mori (Schwein.) Rehm, Ascomyceten no. 363 (1876).

Hysterium grammodes De Not., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 2 (7-8): 55 (1847)

≡ Hysterographium grammodes (De Not.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 782 (1883).

Hysterium rousselii De Not., Piren. Ister. 2(7-8): 19 (1847).

≡ Hysterographium rousselii (De Not.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 779 (1883).

Hysterium vulgare De Not., Piren. Ister. 2(7-8): 18 (1847).

Hysterium australe Duby, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 16(1): 44 (1862).

Hysterium lesquereuxii Duby, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 16(1): 41 (1862).

≡ Hysterographium lesquereuxii (Duby) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 779 (1883).

Hysterium gerardi Cooke & Peck, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3: 33 (1875)

≡ Hysterographium gerardi (Cooke & Peck) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 783 (1883).

Hysterium viticolum Cooke & Peck, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3: 33 (1875).

≡ Hysterographium viticola (Cooke & Peck) Rehm, Ascomyc. No. 316, in Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 782 (1883).

Hysterium variabile Cooke & Peck, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3: 33 (1875).

≡ Hysterographium variabile (Cooke & Peck) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 780 (1883).

Hysterium formosum Cooke, in Harkness & Cooke Grevillea 7: 3 (1878).

≡ Hysterographium formosum (Cooke) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 783 (1883).

Hysterium putaminum Cooke Grevillea 7: 48 (1878).

≡ Hysterographium putaminum (Cooke) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 783 (1883).

Hysterographium portenum Speg., Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 9(4): 185 (1880).

Hysterographium grammodes var. minus Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 783 (1883).

Hysterographium pumilionis Rehm, Discom. 1(3): 21 (1887).

Hysterographium guaraniticum Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. Argent. 26(1): 56 (1888).

Hysterographium punctiforme Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycoll. France 4: 120 (1888).

Hysterographium ruborum Cooke, in Rehm, Ascom., No. 918 (1888).

Hysterium insulare P. Karst. & Har., Rev. Mycol. Toulouse No. 47: (1890).

Hysterographium incisum Ellis & Everh., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club  24:  462 (1897).

Hysterographium ziziphi Pat., Cat. Rais. Pl. Cell. Tunisie: 112 (1897) (as ´zizyphi´).

Hysterographium rousselii var. piri Feltg., Vorst. Pilz. Luxemb. Nachtr. 3: 111 (1903).

Boehm et al. (2009b): “Hysterothecia erumpent-superficial, ellipsoidal, oblong, linear or cylindrical, 1-2(-3.5) mm long, 220-275(-440) μm wide, by 190-330 μm high, mostly straight and lying parallel, but not confluent laterally, often gregarious and crowded so as to cover the substrate, longitudinally striate in age, navicular with tapering ends. Two types of hysterothecial aggregations regularly observed, depending on substrate: (1) Colonies on weathered, whitened decorticated hardwood often forming large oval colonies, with acuminate ends, measuring 5-15 cm in length, with hysterothecia gregarious in the center, densely packed in longitudinal formations, showing multiple stages of development, and darkening the adjacent substrate; when young, prior to emergence of hysterothecia, smaller colonies are seen, but still presenting darkened oval patches, often with coelomycetous anamorph present. (2) Colonies on bark (i.e., corticolous) less gregarious, not darkening the substrate, hysterothecia often situated at angles, rather than in parallel orientation. Peridium 30-60 μm thick medially, to 100+ μm at the base, distinctly three-layered in cross-section, the outer layer darkly pigmented, the middle less so, and the inner layer, thin-walled, pallid and compressed. Pseudoparaphysescellular, septate, persistent, 1-2 μm wide, hyaline, thickened apically, branched and forming an epithecium in a gelatinous matrix above the ascal layer. Asci cylindrical to clavate, bitunicate, short-stipitate, (50-)80-110 x 10-18 μm. Ascospores pigmented, thin-walled dictyospores, obovoid, ends obtuse, 3-(5-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa usually associated with mid-cells, but on occasion also present obliquely in end cells, constricted at the median septum, sometimes, when fully hydrated, at additional, more distal septa, measuring (12-)14-22(-26) x (5-)7-10(-11) μm. Anamorph coelomycetous, Aposphaeria-like in nature, in culture conidiomata as irregular locules, with conidiogenous cells 8-10 x 1.5-2 μm; conidia (2-)2.5-3.5(-4) x 1-2 μm (Lohman 1932). Cosmopolitan, on aged, usually decorticated, weathered wood or bark of Pinus, Juniperus, Salix, Ostrya, Castanea, Quercus, Ulmus, Morus, Pyrus, Amelanchier, Crataegus, Rubus, Cercocarpus, Prunus, Gleditsia, various Fabaceae, Melia, Pistacia, Cotinus, Rhus, Acer, Ziziphus, Vitis, Fraxinus, Olea, and Aspidosperma (Zogg 1962)”.

Ellis & Everhart (1892) for Hg. mori: “Hysterothecia erumpent-superficial, elliptical, oblong, linear or cylindrical, 1-3 mm long by 0.5-1 mm wide, mostly straight & lying parallel, gregarious & often crowded so as to cover the matrix more or less completely for some extent, more or less distinctly longitudinally striate; lips mostly closed at first, finally more or less open, exposing a narrow, linear or lanceolate disk. Asci cylindrical, about 100 x 12 μm (including short stipitate base); paraphysate, eight spored. Ascospores uniseriate or sub-biseriate above, ovate, varying to oblong or ovate-elliptical, three- to five-septate, constricted at the middle septum, one or two of the cells divided by a longitudinal septum, brown, 15-25 x 7-8 μm. On decorticated exposed wood, also, but less frequently, on dead limbs still covered with bark. Common.”

Barr (1990) for Hg. mori: ” Ascomata 1 – 2 (-3) long, 220 – 275 (-440) μm wide, 190 – 330 μm high; surface usually longitudinally striate; peridium 35 – 52 μm wide, to 100 μm at base; Asci (55-) 80 – 120 x 11 – 16 μm, Ascospores 14 – 22 (-26) x 6.5 – 9 (-10.5) μm, obovoid, ends obtuse, 3- (5 – 7) septate, with one longitudinal septum, rarely partial second septum in one or two cells; wall finely verruculose. Anamorph coelomycetous, Aposphaeria – like in nature, in culture condidiomata as irregular locules; conidiogenous cells 8 – 10 x 1.5 – 2 μm; conidia (2-) 2.5 – 3.5 (-4) x 1 – 2 μm (Lohman, 1932). On periderm & decorticated wood, cosmopolitan.”

van der Linde (1992): “Fruitbodies single or in small groups, sometimes closely associated, superficial when mature with embedded base, long, linear with tapering ends, most commonly straight, not branched, up to 1.5 x 0.26mm. Pseudoparaphyses hyaline, thickened apically, septate, branched, forming an epithecium. Asci irregularly biseriate, 8-spored, 150 – 170 x 12 – 13um.Ascospores brown, most commonly 5 or 6 transverse septa & 1 longitudinal septum, constricted at the median septum, dictyosprorous 18 – 23 x 7 – 10um.”


Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch. Left: from Ellis & Ellis (1985); Zogg 1962, pg. 43, 34, 131; as Hysterographium mori (Schw.) Rehm.


Hysterobrevium smilacis (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, comb. nov. MycoBank MB515336.

BasionymHysterium smilacis Schwein. Schr. naturf. Ges. Leipzig 1: 49 (1822).
≡ Gloniopsis smilacis (Schwein.) Underw. & Earle, Bull. Alabama Agric. Exp. Sta. 80: 196 (1897).
≡ Hysterographium smilacis (Schwein.) Ellis & Everh., N. Amer. Pyrenomyc. 709 (1892).
Hysterium biforme Fr., Observ. Mycol. (Havniae) 2: 354 (1818).
≡ Gloniopsis biformis (Fr.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 773 (1883).
Hysterium elongatum β curvatum Fr. , Elench. Fung. (Greifswald) 2: 138 (1828).
Hysterium curvatum Fr., Elench. Fung. 2: 139 (1828).
≡ Gloniopsis curvata (Fr.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 775 (1883).
Hysterium rocheanum Duby, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 16: 51 (1862).
≡ Gloniopsis rocheana (Duby) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 773  (1883).
Hysterographium naviculare P. Karst. Symb. Mycol. Fenn. 6: 37 (1877).
Hysterium gloniopsis W.R. Gerard in Peck, Rep. New York St. Mus. 32: 49 ([for 1877] 1879).
≡ Hysterographium gloniopsis (W.R. Gerard) Ellis & Everh., N. Amer. Pyrenomyc. 708 (1892).
≡ Gloniopsis gloniopsis (W.R. Gerard) House, Bull. New York State Mus. 219‑220: 235 (1920).
Gloniella scortechiniana Sacc. & Roum., Rev. Mycol. Toulouse 5: tab. 41, fig. 17 (1883).
Gloniopsis gerardiana Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 774 (1883).
Gloniopsis decipiens var. cisti Rehm, Hedwigia 25: 13 (1886).
Gloniopsis cisti Rehm, Hedwigia 25: 13 (1896).
Gloniopsis ambigua Sacc., Ann. Mycol. 10(3): 317 (1912).
Gloniopsis ellisiii Cash, Mycologia 31: 294 (1939).

Boehm et al. 2009b: “Hysterothecia erumpent, many times surrounded at the base by ruptured epidermis or periderm, especially when borne in herbaceous stems, much less so on wood, then completely superficial, 0.5-1.5 mm long, 300-400 μm wide, 200-250 μm high, longitudinally striated. Peridium 25-50 μm wide, narrower at base within the substrate, widest at mid-point, carbonaceous and brittle when dry. Pseudoparaphyses cellular, septate, persistent, 1-1.5 μm wide, hyaline to pale yellow in mass, branched above, forming an epithecium, but not darkly pigmented, exposed surface yellow-brown. Asci cylindrical to clavate, bitunicate, short-stipitate, 70-120 x 15-25 μm at maturity. Ascospores asymmetric, hyaline to pale yellow dictyospores, with acuminate ends, and a gelatinous sheath that usually dissipates at maturity, measuring (13-)15-26(-31) x (4-)5-9(-10) μm. Spore septation highly variable, usually 3-5(-9)-septate and with 1(-3) vertical septa, passing through multiple mid-cells, and usually prominently constricted at the median septum, when fresh and hydrated, sometimes constriced along multiple transverse septa. Anamorph coelomycetous, Aposphaeria-like. Cosmopolitan on Pinus, Chamaerops, Smilax, Populus, Salix, Juglans, Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Ficus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Rubus, Rosa, Prunus, Robinia, Butea, Pistacia, Cotinus, Acer, Cistus, Erica, and  Lavandula (Zogg 1962)”.


Ellis & Everhart (1892) for Glp. smilacis: “Hysterothecia erumpent, surrounded at the base by the ruptured epidermis, about 1mm long, rarely 1.5 – 2mm, gregarious, black, but not shining: lips nearly closed so as to leave but a narrow cleft between them, marked on each side by two distinct longitudinal striae. Asci oblong, subsessile, 60 x 15 μm, paraphysate, eight-spored. Ascospores biseriate or inordinate, clavate-oblong or clavate fusoid, yellowish-hyaline, 3 – 5 pseudoseptate, one or two of the inner cells divided by a longitudinal septum, 12 – 20 (15) x 4 – 5 μm, or including the gelatinous envelope surrounding the spore 7 μm wide.”


Barr (1990) for Glp. smilacis: “Ascomata 0.5 – 1mm long, 300 – 355 μm wide, 205 – 275 μm high, surface longitudinally striate; substrate often blackened; peridium 25 – 45 μm thick, narrow at the base; exposed hymenial surface yellowish brown. Asci 75 – 120 x 15 – 22 μm. Ascospores 15 – 26 (-31) x 5 – 9 μm, obovoid, ends acute, 3 – 5 (-7) septate, with one longitudinal septum in mid cells, constricted at first-formed septum, surrounded by gel coating. In woody branches, north temperate regions. The epithet “smilacis” has a long history. Cash (1939) recognized two taxa with quite similar elongate ascomata on Smilax. Ascomata of Hypodermopsis smilacis (Schwein.) Cash remain immersed & the ascospores are thee-septate, light brown, 20 – 27 μm, & surrounded by a wide gel coating. Ascomata of Gloniopsis ellisiiCash (for G. smilacis sensu Ellis & Everhart, Underwood & Earle, Wilson & Seaver) become erumpent & the ascospores are 4 – 6 septate with one longitudinal septum, hyaline, 15 – 22 x 5 – 8 μm & surrounded by narrow gel coating. The specimens of NAF 2375 & F. Carol. 49 on Smilax are erumpent superficial as in G. ellisii but the ascospores are hyaline & 22 – 26 x 6 – 7.5 μm as in H. smilacis, thus combining the fearues of the two raxa separated by Cash (1939). Other exciccati & recently collected specimens show erumpent superficial ascomata & hyaline ascospores, 3 – 5 (-7) septate, 15 – 25 x 5 – 9 μm , surrounded by a variably narrow or wide gel coating. I must conclude that Hypodermopsis smilacis refers to young stages of Gloniopsis smilacis. For this reason the earlier epithet is utilized. The species is not restricted to branches of Smilax, but occurs also on other woody substrates.”


Boehm et al. 2009b: “Hysterobrevium mori, while falling within the Hysteriaceae, finds itself in two separate clades (Boehm et al. 2009b). In Clade A, one set of North American Hb. mori isolates associates with six highly geographically diverse isolates of Hb. smilacis. The Hb. mori isolates originate from the United States, from New Jersey (CBS 123336, CBS 123564), New York (CBS 123335, CBS 123563), Indiana (SMH 5273) and Michigan (SMH 5286). The Hb. smilacis isolates originate from the United States, from Indiana (SMH 5280) and Michigan (CBS 200.34), as well as from South Africa (CMW 18053), Sweden (CBS 114601) and Kenya (GKM 426N). Dictyospores of both species are of similar shape, size and degree of septation: (12-)14-22(-26) x (5-)7-10(-11) μm, 3-(5-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, for Hb. mori versus (13-)15-26(-31) x (4-)5-9(-10) μm, 3-5(-9)-septate, with 1(-3) vertical septa, for Hb. smilacis. They differ in the absence of pigmentation and the presence of a gelatinous sheath in the latter. Thus, these two species, previously classified in two separate genera, Hysterographium and Gloniopsis, are in fact closely related, with each species far removed from the type species of their respective genera. Further support for this argument, can be found in Lohman (1933a), who found a similar Aposphaeria anamorph for both Hb. mori (as Hg. mori) and Hb. smilacis (as Gp. gerardiana Sacc.) and stated that they were indistinguishable in culture. The implication is that both taxa should be united within the same genus, for which we propose Hysterobrevium. In addition to the association with Hb. smilacis in Clade A, Hb. mori also finds itself in Clade D (Boehm et al. 2009b). As this is validated by two geographically diverse isolates, one from the United States, Michigan (CBS 245.34) and one from Kenya (GKM 1013 / BPI 879788), it is significant. Spore measurements of the Kenyan accession GKM 1013 (BPI 879788) in Clade D versus those of other Hb. mori accessions in Clade A, represented by SMH 5273 / BPI 879787, CBS 123335 / BPI 878734, and CBS 123336 / BPI 878733, failed to detect any significant morphological differences; nor were there any appreciable differences detected in their hysterothecia. The association of Hb. mori with unrelated taxa within the Hysteriaceae in Clade A and D may be significant in that Hb. mori has long been regarded as a highly variable taxon (Ellis & Everhart 1892; Lohman 1933a), resulting in the synonymy of no fewer than 28 names since its inception by Schweinitz in 1832 (Zogg 1962). Future studies may well reveal that Hb. mori contains a number of cryptic species, morphologically similar, but genetically unrelated”.

Hysterobrevium smilacis (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch (as Gloniopsis curvata (Fr.) Sacc.). From Zogg (1962), pgs. 49, 55, 131.


Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, comb. nov. MycoBank MB515337.

BasionymGloniopsis constricta N. Amano, Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 24: 289 (1983).

Boehm et al. 2009b: “Amano (1983) described a small-spored species of Gloniopsis from Japan, Gp. constricta, noting a prominent median septal constriction. The measurements of the dictyospores were given as 10.4-13.2 x 4.4-5.8 μm, usually with 3-4 transverse and one vertical septum that passes through one to three cells. Although not mentioned (Amano 1983), the illustrations depict a very thick wall and dictyospores highly symmetric in outline and septation. Amano (1983) stated of the spores “…hyaline, later becoming brown…”, but did not mention the presence of a gelatinous sheath. He also noted that the closest resemblance is with Hb. smilacis (as Gp. curvata), the latter however with slightly larger spores.  In this study, we were fortunate to obtain a specimen from New Zealand (SMH 5211.1, deposited in F; Fig. 5A-E) that corresponds to the published description given by Amano (1983), but differs on several counts. Like Gp. constricta, the hyaline dictyospores in SMH 5211.1, are highly symmetric and thick-walled, (1-)3(-4)-septate, with 1(-2) vertical septa, but the constriction at the median septum in SMH 5211.1, while present, is not prominent. Also unlike Gp. constricta, the spores in SMH 5211.1 have an obvious gelatinous sheath when young, but this quickly dissipates with age, and may be completely absent in mature specimens. In SMH 5211.1, the spores measure (18-)20(-23) x 10-12 μm, which is considerably larger than those of Gp. constricta. Nevertheless, these differences, in our opinion, are not sufficient to warrant a new species, and we choose here to simply expand the spore measurements to (11-)13-20(-23) x 5-12 μm, rather than describe a new species, proposing instead the new combination Hb. constrictum”.

Amano (1983) for Glp. constricta: “Ascomata oval or elongated with acute ends, superficial with immersed base, aggregated, straight or curved, rarely branched, opening by a longitudinal slit, carbonaceous, black, 0.5 – 2mm long, 240 – 320 μm wide & 200 – 320 μm high. Tissues of ascomata walls of textura epidermoidea. Pseudoparaphyses filiform, branched, anastomosed, hyaline, 1.0 – 1.2 μm thick. Asci bitunicate, cylindrical, stipitate, 8-spored, 74 – 112 x 8 – 10 μm. Ascospores uniseriate, ellipsoid, with 3 – 4 transverse septa & one vertical septum in the middle cells, constricted at the central transverse septum, hyaline, later becoming brown, 10.4 – 13.2 x 4.4 – 5.8 μm. On decorticated wood. Japan”.

Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch. From Amano (1983).