The genus Gloniopsis De Notaris
De Notaris, Giorn. Bot. Ital. 2(2): 12, 23 (1847)

by Eric W.A. Boehm

The genus Gloniopsis (Clade D). A-B. Gloniopsis praelonga (CBS 123337 [BPI 878725], USA).
C-FGloniopsis subrugosa (GKM 1214 [BPI 879776], Kenya).
1. Gloniopsis subrugosa(CBS 123346, BPI 878735; South Africa).
Scale bar (habitat) = 500 μm; Scale bar (spores and asci) = 20 μm.
Fig. 6 from Boehm et al. 2009b.]

Hysterium Tode : Fries pro parte
Hysterographium Corda emend. De Not. pro parte

De Notaris (1847) originally did not designate a type for the genus Gloniopsis. Therefore, Clements & Shear (1931) selected Gp. decipiens De Not. as the lectotype, following von Höhnel (1918). Zogg (1962) considered Gp. decipiens a doubtful species and proposed instead Gp. praelonga (Schw.) Zogg as the type species, and designated a specimen which he regarded as a specific synonym of Gp. decipiens, due to lack of identifiable material in the original lectotype. The genus is characterised by hyaline to yellow dictyospores, often inequilateral, curved, in outline obovoid, ends obtuse to sub- to acuminate, multi-septate, with one or more longitudinal septa, constricted at the first-formed septum, sometimes constricted at additional septa, and usually surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, which may dissipate with age. Zogg (1962) synonymised a number of names under the type species, Gp. praelonga (Schwein.) Underw. & Earle, and accepted only one additional species, namely Gp. curvata (Fr.) Sacc. with smaller ascospores. Barr (1990a) proposed to include this latter species under the earlier name Gp. smilacis (Schwein.) Underw. & Earle, following Cash (1939). In Boehm et al. (2009b), we have transferred Gp. smilacis to Hysterobrevium, closely related to Hb. mori in Clade A. Recently, Gp. argentinensis Speg., previously considered by Zogg (1962) as a doubtful species, was reinstated by Lorenzo & Messuti (1998). The authors state that the ascospores are 7-septate, with 1-3(-4) longitudinal septa, some passing through multiple cells, in outline widely ellipsoid, measuring 20-26 x 9-12 μm. The septation and spore measurements are nearly identical to those of Gp. praelonga, the latter 5-7(-10)-septate, with 2-3 longitudinal septa, (16-)20-32(-34) x (6-)9-12(-15) μm. We therefore synonymise Gp. argentinensis under Gp. praelonga. Lastly, Amano (1983) described an additional two species of Gloniopsis from Japan, namely Gp. macrospora N. Amano and Gp. constricta N. Amano, the latter transferred here to Hysterobrevium (Boehm et al. 2009b).

Molecular data (Boehm et al. 2009 a, b) indicate that the genus Gloniopsis is highly polyphyletic, with the type, Gp. praelonga, belonging to Clade D (Boehm et al. 2009b). Closely associated with the type, are a number of species possessing pigmented dictyospores, which would previously have been classified in the genus Hysterographium (e.g., Hysterographium subrugosum). Based on molecular data, we therefore propose to emend the genus Gloniopsis, to include both hyaline and pigmented dictyospores. As the taxonomy of HysterographiumHysterobrevium and Gloniopsis is currently in flux, we chose to provide the following dichotomous key, whereby all hysteriaceous fungi, bearing transversely and longitudinally septate dictyospores, whether pigmented or hyaline, are identified together, with the caveat that unrelated taxa share the same key.


Key to the species of Hysterographium, Hysterobrevium and Gloniopsis

  1. Dictyospores, usually shorter than 25 μm →  2
  2. Dictyospores mostly longer than 25 μm →  6


  1. Dictyospores pigmented, thin-walled, fragile, pronouncedly arcuate or bent, 3-5(-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, which are mostly associated with the mid-cells, these much larger and swollen than the end-cells, no septal constrictions, (10-)12-18(-22) x 6-10 µm; Kenya →  Gloniopsis arciformis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch
  2. Not with the above combination of characters →  3


  1. Dictyospores hyaline at maturity →  4
  2. Dictyospores pigmented at maturity →  5


  1. Dictyospores highly symmetric in outline and septation, with thickened walls, gelatinous sheath present when young, absent at maturity, (1-)3(-4)-septate, with 1(-2) vertical septa, that may pass through one to two cells; (11-)13-20(-23) x 5-12 μm; Japan, New Zealand →  Hysterobrevium constrictum (N. Amano) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores asymmetric, with acuminate ends, with a gelatinous sheath when young, mostly 3-5(-9)-septate and  with 1(-3) vertical septa, passing through multiple mid-cells, prominently constricted at the median septum, sometimes constriced at multiple septa, (13-)15-26(-31) x (4-)5-9(-10) μm; cosmopolitan →  Hysterobrevium smilacis  (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch


  1. Dictyospores thin-walled, obovoid, with obtuse ends, 3-(5-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, usually associated with mid-cells, but occasionally present obliquely in end-cells, constricted at the median septum, sometimes at additional septa, (12-)14-22(-26) x (5-)7-10(-11) μm; cosmopolitan →   Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores thin-walled, very fragile, obovoid, 3(-4[rarely])-septate, highly gutulate when young, spore apices asymmetric, the upper obtuse, the lower acuminate and sometimes drawn out, often with oblique septa in end cell(s), hardly constricted at the septa, measuring (12-)15-18(-19) x 5-7(-8) μm; Kenya →   Gloniopsis kenyensis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch


  1. Red pigment present in hamathecium and/or centrum; dictyospores pigmented →   7
  2. No red pigment present, spores pigmented or hyaline →   8


  1. Dictyospores, 22-25(-27) x 5-6 μm, with (5-)6 transverse and 1 vertical septum in either cell or both cells adjacent to the primary septum; typically with red pigment in the hamathecium; neotropical (Costa Rica) →   Oedohysterium pulchrum (Checa, Shoemaker & Umaña) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch

Note: Od. pulchrum is accommodated in the genus Oedohysterium and is present in both keys.

  1. Dictyospores 25-28 x 11-13 μm, with 5-6 transverse and mostly one longitudinal septum; hamathecium brick-red; on Acaciathorns, South Africa →   Hysterographium spinicola Doidge


  1. Dictyospores hyaline or turning brown tardily →   9
  2. Dictyospores pigmented in the ascus →   10


  1. Dictyospores hyaline turning yellow in age, obovoid, ends usually obtuse, 5-7(-10)-septate, with 2-3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the median and often other septa, gelatinous sheath when young, (16-)20-32(-34) x (6-)9-12(-15) μm; cosmopolitan →   Gloniopsis praelonga (Schwein.) Underw. & Earle 
  2. Ascospores irregularly biseriate, ellipsoid, hyaline but becoming brown tardily, with the upper half generally wider than the lower half, sometimes surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, with 7-13 transverse and 1-3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the median transverse septum; 25-49 x 8-17 μm; Japan →   Gloniopsis macrospora N. Amano


  1. Dictyospores usually less than 38 µm long →   11
  2. Dictyospores 30-80 μm long →   12


  1. Dictyospores (22-)25-34(-45) x (6-)8-12(-17) μm, mostly with 7-11 transverse and 1-2 vertical septa; cosmopolitan →   Gloniopsis subrugosa(Cooke & Ellis) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
  2. Dictyospores 26-38 x 10-15 μm, with 6-13 transverse and 1-3 vertical septa, obovoid, ends obtuse; Japan →   Hysterographium minus N. Amano


  1. Dictyospores (25-)30-45(-51) x (10-)12-15(-22) μm, with 7-9 transverse and 2-3 vertical septa, obovoid, ends obtuse; cosmopolitan →   Hysterographium fraxini (Pers. : Fr.) De Not.

Note: Hysterographium fraxini, the type species for the genus Hysterographium, lies outside of the Hysteriaceae, as Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis (Boehm et al. 2009).

  1. Ascospore outline ellipsoid, fusoid, ends slightly acuminate, (30-)40-65(-80) x (8-)10-18(-19) μm, with 7-15 transverse and 1-3 vertical septa; cosmopolitan →   Hysterographium flexuosum (Schwein.) Sacc. 


Gloniopsis subrugosa (Cooke & Ellis) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, comb. nov. MycoBank MB515338.

BasionymHysterium subrugosum Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 5: 54 (1876).
≡ Hysterographium subrugosum (Cooke & Ellis) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 780 (1883).
Hsyterographium hiascens Rehm, Ber. Nat. Hist. Ver. Augsburg 26: 780 (1881).
Hysterographium kansense Ellis & Everh., Erythea 2: 22 (1894).
Hysterographium cylindrosporum Rehm, Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 25(6): 11 (1899).

Hysterographium minutum M.L. Lohman, Pap. Michigan Acad. 17: 267 (1933).

Hysterothecia erumpent to superficial, scattered to densely crowded, navicular, straight to flexuous, with tapered ends, surface not striated in age, but smooth to sub-rugose in texture, 1-2 mm long, 250-350 μm diam. Peridium composed of small pseudoparenchymatous cells, heavily pigmented at the surface, not showing a distinct number of layers, relatively smooth on outer surface. Pseudoparaphyses narrowly cellular, septate, 1-1.5 μm in diam., hyaline, branched above the asci, borne in a gelatinous matrix. Asci cylindrical to clavate, bitunicate, short-stipitate, 80-150 x 18-25 μm, with a prominent apical nasse, especially when young. Ascospores pigmented thin-walled, dictyospores (22-)25-34(-45) x (6-)8-12(-17) μm, mostly with 7-11 transverse and 1-2 vertical septa, hardly constricted at septa, clear brown, ends paler at times, slightly asymmetric in outline. Anamorph coelomycetous, Aposphaeria-like (Lohman 1933a). Less frequently collected, but reported from North America (Barr 1990b), Europe (Zogg 1962), Argentina (Messuti & Lorenzo 2003) and from South Africa (van der Linde 1992) as well. Old wood and bark of Populus, Quercus, Celtis, Crataegus, Rosa, and Cotinus (Zogg 1962), as well as on weathered fence posts and old planks (Boehm, unpubl. data).

Ellis & Everhart (1892): “Hysterothecia scattered, oblong-elliptical, faintly transversely sub-rugose, black, not striate, about 1mm long, often slightly curved; lips incurved, open so as to expose a narrow strip of the black disk. Asci oblong-cylindrical, sessile, paraphysate, rounded at the apex, 75-80 x 20 μm. Ascospores inordinate, ovate-oblong, obtuse, slightly curved, 5-7 septate, with one or two partial longitudinal septa, 20-25 x 10 μm. On dry hard wood of decaying oak stumps, Newfield, NJ. The substance of the hysterothecia when crushed under the microscope has a reddish tinge”.Messuti & Lorenzo (2003): “Hysterothecia solitary to gregarious, superficial, straight to flexuous, elliptical with pointed ends, (0.17-) 0.35 – 2.0 x -.1 – 0.4mm; pseudoparaphyses hyaline, septate, flexuous, branched near the tips to form an epithecium; asci clavate, 8-spored, 48 – 120 x 14 – 30 μm; ascospores yellowish brown to reddish brown, biseriate, with 7 – 11 transverse & 1 – 2 longitudinal septa, ellipsoid to fusiform, with rounded ends, 22 – 36 (-45) x 6 – 13 (-17) μm. Infrequent in distribution. In Argentina & Chile, it was collected from wood of Nothofagus antarctica, N. dombeyi & Drimys winteri.” Messuti & Lorenzo add as a synonym: Hysterographium cylindrosporum Rehm

Barr (1990): “Ascomata to 1mm long, 275 – 330 μm diam.; surface smooth; peridium 50 μm wide. Asci (65-) 80 – 150 x 15 – 22 (-26) μm. Ascospores (20-) 25 – 33 (-41) x (7-) 8 – 10 μm, clear brown, ends paler at times, (3-) 5 – 8 septate, with one longitudinal septum in some cells, not constricted at septa. Anamorph coelomycetous; in culture conidiomata Aposphaeria – like ; conidiogenous cells 5 – 8 x 1 μm; conidia 2 – 2.5 x 0.7 μm (Lohman, 1932, as Hysterographium minutum). In woody branches, north temperate zone. Lohman (1931) described ascospores germination & (1932) characteristics in culture for this species (as H. kansense). His cultures did not produce an anamorph, but those that he cited as H. minutum (Lohman, 1932) did. Hysterographium subrugosum apparently is quite infrequent in occurrence in contrast to other species in the genus. Zogg (1962) reported on a few collections in southern France. In North America it is also known from Missouri & New Jersey (Ellis & Everhart, 1892).”

van der Linde (1992): “Fruitbodies single or in small groups, superficial, long elliptic, most commonly straight, sometimes slightly curved, not branched, up to 1.5 x 0.3mm. Pseudoparaphyses filiform, hyaline, septate, branched to form an epithecium. Asci irregularly biseriate, 8-spored, 100 – 120 x 30um. Ascospores dark brown, fusiform, dictyosporous, most commonly with 8 or 9 transverse septa & one longitudinal septum, measuring 27 – 28 x 12 – 13um. These dimension are slightly smaller than those given by Zogg (1962) for this species.”

Notes: In Boehm et al. (2009b), we were able to include three geographically diverse isolates of Gp. praelonga, two from South Africa (CBS 112415 and CMW 19983 / PREM 57539), and one from the United States, New Jersey (CBS 123337 / BPI 878725). These isolates cluster together in Clade D and associate with one isolate of Gp. subrugosa from South Africa (CBS 123346 / BPI 878735). Both Gp. praelonga and Gp. subrugosa are somewhat similar in the shape, size and septation of their dictyospores, hyaline in the former (see Fig. 6B in Boehm et al. 2009b), pigmented in the latter (Fig. 6G). However, Gp. praelonga tend to have acuminate spore apices, whereas in Gp. subrugosa the apices are obtuse. The spores of Gp. praelonga are (16-)20-32(-34) x (6-)9-12(-15) μm, and those of Gp. subrugosa are (22-)25-34(-45) x (6-)8-12(-17) μm. Septation is also similar in both species, with 5-11 transverse and 1-3 vertical septa in Gp. praelonga and 7-11 transverse and 1-2 vertical septa in Gp. subrugosa. They differ in pigmentation and the presence of a gelatinous sheath in the type. Molecular data indicate that they are closely related.

An additional two isolates of Gp. subrugosa, from Kenya (GKM 1214 / BPI 879776) and Cuba (SMH 557 / BPI 879777), are more distantly related and do not fall in Clade D. Moreover, no morphological differences were noted between these two more distantly associated isolates of Gp. subrugosa and CBS 123346 (BPI 878735) from South Africa in Clade D. Although spore morphology dictates that all three specimens of Gp. subrugosa should be classified as the same species, molecular data point to genetic heterogeneity within the taxon. This is similar to the situation in Hb. mori, mentioned earlier, which, despite identical morphologies, finds affinities in both Clades A and D. Hysterobrevium mori and, to a lesser extent, Gp. subrugosa, may represent ancestral lineages that have maintained stable morphologies, while simultaneously incurring sufficient genetic change to, in the case of Hb. mori, fall into different clades within the family. Alternatively, these isolates may represent examples of convergent evolution among genetically unrelated lineages, which produce remarkably similar ascospores and hysterothecia.

Gloniopsis subrugosa (Cooke & Ellis) E.W.A. Boehm & C.L. Schoch. Zogg (1962), pgs. 34, 47, 131; as Hysterographium subrugosum (Cooke & Ellis) Sacc.
Also associating with Gp. praelonga and Gp. subrugosa in Clade D (Fig. 1 in Boehm et al. 2009b) are two new species from East Africa, described below.


Gloniopsis arciformis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch, sp. nov. MycoBank MB515331, Fig. 7A-H.

Etymology: Latin arcus, a bow or arch, referring to the arcuate or arciform dictyospores.

Hysterothecia solitaria vel pauca aggregata, recta vel flexuosa, carbonacea, plerumque erecta, conspicue applanata et altiora quam lata, (0.5-)1-2.5 mm longa, 250-350 μm lata, 400-600 μm alta, per longitudinem striata, sulco inconspicuo maturitate clauso. Peridium 40-75 µm crassum in medio, basim versus crassius, sursum tenuius, bistratosum. Pseudoparaphyses cellulares 1-1.5 µm latae, ramosae, sursum magis crassitunicatae, epithecium pigmentatum ascos obtegens formantes. Asci cylindrici vel clavati, stipite sinuoso, bitunicati, 50-75 × 14-18 µm; ascosporae irregulariter biseriatae, dictyosporae, pigmentatae, tenuitunicatae, fragiles, facile dilabentes, conspicue arcuatae, 3-5(-7)-septatae, 1-2(-3) septis verticalibus divisae; cellulis centralibus multo maioribus quam distales, ad septa haud constrictae, (10-)12-18(-22) x 6-10 μm.

Hysterothecia solitary to sparsely aggregated, straight to flexuous, carbonaceous, mainly erect, distinctly flattened and taller than wide, (0.5-)1-2.5 mm long, 250-350 μm wide, by 400-600 μm high, longitudinally striated, with an inconspicuous sulcus remaining closed at maturity. Peridium 40-75 µm thick medially, thicker towards the base, thinner towards the sulcus, composed of two layers, the inner thin, compressed and hyaline, the outer denser, and darkly pigmented. Pseudoparaphyses cellular 1-1.5 μm wide, branched and thicker-walled distally towards the top, forming a pigmented epithecium above the asci. Asci cylindrical to clavate, with a sinuous stalk, bitunicate, 50-75 x 14-18 µm (n = 7), ascospores irregularly biseriate. Ascospores pigmented, thin-walled, dictyospores, fragile, easily breaking under the slightest pressure, pronouncedly arcuate or bent (arciform), and thus highly asymmetric, 3-5(-7)-septate, with 1-2(-3) vertical septa, these mostly associated with the mid cells, which are much larger and swollen than the end-cells, no septal constrictions, measuring (10-)12-18(-22) x 6-10 μm (n = 17).

Specimen examinedKenya, Coast Province, Malindi District, Arabuko-Sokoke National Park, 6 Nov. 2006, G.K. Mugambi. Deposited as BPI 879774, holotype [formerly, GKM L166A (EA)].

NotesGloniopsis arciformis is represented by a single specimen (BPI 879774) of only ~30 fruitbodies in the protected crevice of a small piece of decorticated hardwood, collected in Arabuko-Sokoke National Park, Malindi District, Kenya. Although the material is sparse, it does permit the description of a new species on account of the highly unusual arcuate dictyospores. Gloniopsis arciformis resides in Clade D, and is phylogenetically closely associated with two other species of Gloniopsis (Gp. praelonga and Gp. subrugosa), as well as with an additional new species described below.

The genus Gloniopsis (Clade D) A-H. Gloniopsis arciformis sp. nov. (GKM L166A [BPI 879774 = holotype],
Kenya).  M. Gloniopsis kenyensis (GKM 1010 [BPI 879775 = holotype], Kenya). Scale bar (habitat) = 500 μm;
Scale bar (spores and asci) = 10 μm. Fig. 7 from Boehm et al. 2009b.

Gloniopsis kenyensis E.W.A. Boehm, G.K. Mugambi, S.M. Huhndorf & C.L. Schoch, sp. nov. MycoBank MB515359, Fig. 7I-M.

Etymology: From the Latin -ensis to denote origin, from Kenya.

Hysterothecia navicularia, carbonacea, recta vel flexuosa, utrinque obtusa, dense aggregata, erumpentia, ad latera inconspicue striata vel levia, (0.5-)1-3 mm longa, 250-350 µm lata, 250-350 µm alta. Peridium prope basim ad 100 µm crassum, bi- vel tristratosum, stratum internum compressum, hyalinum, strata exteriora densiora et fusca. Pseudoparaphyses cellulares, septatae, 1-1.5 µm latae, sursum ramosae et anastomosantes, epithecium pigmentatum ascos obtegens formantes. Asci cylindrici vel clavati, bitunicati, 60-80 x 12-16 µm, ascosporas irregulariter biseriatas continentes. Ascosporae dictyoseptatae, pigmentatae, obovoideae, tenuitunicatae, fragiles, polis asymmetricis: apice obtuso, ad basim acuminatae vel nonnumquam protrudentes, 3(-4)-septatae, 1-2 septis verticalibus, utrinque saepe septis obliquis divisae, ad septa vix constrictae, iuvenes guttulis repletae, (12-)15-18(-19) x 5-7(-8) μm.

Hysterothecia navicular, carbonaceous, straight to flexuous, with obtuse ends, densely aggregated, erumpent, slightly striated laterally to smooth, (0.5-)1-3 mm long, 250-350 μm wide, by 250-350 μm high. Peridium up to 100 µm thick at base, composed of composed of two to three layers, the inner thin, compressed and hyaline, the outer two progressively denser, and darkly pigmented. Pseudoparaphyses cellular, septate, 1-1.5 μm wide, branched, anastomosed distally, forming a pigmented epithecium above the asci. Asci cylindrical to clavate, bitunicate, 60-80 x 12-16 μm (n = 5), ascospores irregularly biseriate. Ascospores pigmented dictyospores, in outline obovoid, thin-walled, very fragile, spore apices asymmetric, the upper obtuse, the lower acuminate and sometimes drawn out, 3(-4[rarely])-septate, with 1-2 vertical septa, often with oblique septa in end cell, hardly constricted at the septa, highly gutulate when young, (12-)15-18(-19) x 5-7(-8) μm (n = 14). Known from only one collection, from Kenya, East Africa.

Specimen examined: Kenya, Coast Province, Malindi District, Arabuko-Sokoke National Park, 6 Apr. 2005, G.K. Mugambi. Deposited as BPI 879775 = holotype; GKM 1010 (EA) = paratype.

Notes: Molecular data indicate that both Gp. kenyensis and Gp. arciformis are closely associated, adjacent to Gp. praelonga and Gp. subrugosa in Clade D. The spores of all four taxa, however, are different, and thus their association would not have been predicted based on traditional morphology. The spores of Gp. kenyensis do bear a close resemblance, however, to those of Hb. mori. Both have predominantly 3-septate, thin-walled, pigmented dictyospores, with 1-2 vertical septa, often with oblique septa in the end cell. They can be differentiated on spore size: (12-)14-22(-26) x (5-)7-10(-11) μm for Hb. mori, versus(12-)15-18(-19) x 5-7(-8) μm for Gp. kenyensis. The spores of Hb. mori are usually longer and wider, and also show prominent septal constrictions, especially when fresh and hydrated. Additionally, Gp. kenyensisis highly guttulate when young, where this is rarely observed in Hb. mori. Molecular data indicate that they are not related.

To summarize, molecular data have necessitated the break up of the genus Hysterographium, because the type, Hg. fraxini, no longer resides within the Hysteriaceae (Boehm et al. 2009). This break up has resulted in: (1) the new genus Hysterobrevium, which includes both species with hyaline dictyospores, previously classified as Gloniopsis (Hb. constrictum and Hb. smilacis), and species with pigmented dictyospores, previously classified as Hysterographium (Hb. mori) in Clade A; (2) the inclusion in Gloniopsis of both hyaline (Gp. praelonga) and pigmented (Gp. subrugosaGp. arciformisGp. kenyensis) dictyospores in Clade D; (3) the inclusion in Oedohysterium of pigmented dictyospored species previously classified in Hysterographium (Od. pulchrum), also in Clade D; and, lastly, (4) the removal of Hysterographium, with the type Hg. fraxini, from the Hysteriaceae, currently placed as Pleosporomycetidae gen. incertae sedis.


Gloniopsis praelonga (Schw.) Zogg

Zogg. 1962. Beitrage zur Krytogamen. Schweiz, Band 11, Heft 3: 50.

Hysterium praelongum Schw., 1834
Gloniopsis brevisaccata Lohman, 1933a
Gloniopsis buxi Petrak, 1947
Hysterium connivens Cooke et Hark. (in Bisby, 1932)
Hysterium Cookeanum Gerard, 1976
Gloniopsis Cookeanum (Ger.) Sacc., 1883
Gloniopsis decipiens de Not., 1847
Hysterographium insigne Cooke et Harkn., 1885
Gloniopsis insignis (C. et Hark.) Berl. et Vogl., 1886
Gloniopsis lepophila Kirschstein, 1938
Gloniopsis levantica Rehm, 1886
Hysterium lonicerae Phill. et Harkn., 1884b
Gloniopsis lonicerae (Phill. et Harkn.) Berl. et Vogl., 1886
Hysterium Muelleri Duby, 1862
Gloniopsis Muelleri (Duby) Sacc. 1883
Gloniopsis Penzigi Paoli, 1905
Hysterium vaccinii Carm. ex Berk. non Schw. (in Boughey, 1938/39)
Gloniopsis vaccinia (Carm. ex Berk. non Schw.) Boughey, 1938/39
Hysterium verbasci Schw., 1834
Gloniopsis verbasci (Schw.) Rehm, 1886
Gloniopsis vienalis Sacc. et Br. (in Sacc., 1891)

Cosmopolitan on many hardwood hosts [e.g., as Gloniopsis Cookeana (Ger.) Sacc., from bark of Carya alba (New Palz Landing, NY, Gerard), dry exposed wood, Ohio (Morgan), cast-off bark of Acer, on Pyrus, Malus & Quercus Newfield, NJ (Ellis); as Gloniopsis lonicerae (Phil. & Hark.), from decorticated branches of Lonicera from CA (Harkness); as Gloniopsis insignis C. et Hark. from Acacia from CA (Harkness); as Gloniopsis brevisaccata Lohman 1933a; and as Gloniopsis levantica Rehm.].   Cosmopolitan. Old bark & wood of Juniperus, Arecastrum, Populus, Carya, Corylus, Castanea, Quercus, Ficus, Persea, Laurus, Crataegus, Rubus, Rosa, Prunus, Acacia, Piptadenia, Calycotome, Buxus, Rhus, Aesculus, Ceanothus, Cistus, Myrtus, Eucalyptus, Arctostaphylos, Vaccinium, Erica, Olea, Aspidosperma, Verbascum, Catalpa, &Lonicera.

Ellis & Everhart (1892): “Hysterothecia linear, mostly lying parallel, straight or sub-flexuous, flattened above, immersed in the wood, with the flattened apex exposed & slightly prominent; lips incurved, leaving a narrow crevice or furrow between them, 1.5 – 2.5 mm in length. Asci clavate-oblong, 65-70 x 15 μm, eight-spored, subsessile, overtopped by the abundant, filiform paraphyses, which are blackened & glued together at their tips (the epithecium). Ascospores sub-biseriate, ovate-elliptical or subclavate, often a little curved, 5 to 7 septate & muriform, yellowish-hyaline, measuring 20 – 22 x 8 – 10 μm. On weather-beaten wood, Carolina & Pennsylvania (Schw.), Ohio (Morgan), on wood of Quercus & Persea, Texas & Florida (Ravenel), on old stems of Verbascum thapsus, Bethlehem, PA (Schw.). Gloniopsis praelonga is virtually indistinguishable from Glonium lineare in the field.”

Barr (1990): “Ascomata 1 – 1.5 mm long, 300 – 400 μm wide, 220 – 245 μm high, erumpent to superficial; peridium 30 – 50 μm wide; exposed hymenial surface brownish. Asci 60 – 120 x 15 – 25 μm,. Ascospores 20 – 30 x 9 – 12 μm, hyaline or slightly reddish in age, obovoid, ends obtuse, 5 – 7 (-10) septate, with 2 – 3 longitudinal septa, constricted at least at the first formed septum. Anamorph Aposphaeria – like; elongate conidiogenous cells lining cavity of conidioma; conidia hyaline, oblong ovoid, one celled (Lohman, 1932). In woody branches or stout herbaceous stalks, north temperate & tropical regions.”

Lee & Crous (2003): “Ascomata hysterothecioid, globose to subglobose in vertical section, solitary to gregarious, erumpent to superficial with base immersed, straight to flexuous, simple to rarely branched, ellipsoid or elongated with blunt to pointed extremes, opening by a depressed longitudinal slit, 0.1 – 0.9 mm long, 0.3 – 0.4 mm wide. Peridium consisting of three layers, up to 70 μm in diameter, pseudoparenchymatous, outer layer dark, carbonaceous, inner layer hyaline, compressed, middle layer consisting of 1 – 2 rows of thick walled, brown cells between outer & inner layers. Pseudoparaphyses cellular, hyaline, septate, flexuous, branched, numerous, 0.5 – 1.5 μm wide. Asci bitunicate, cylindric to clavate, stipitate, octosporous, 95 – 113 x 15 – 20 μm. Ascospores (23-) 25 – 26 (-30) x (9-) 10 – 11 (-13) μm, ellipsoid, hyaline to yellowish, with 5 – 7 transverse septa & 1 – 2 longitudinal septa, slightly constricted at the transverse septa, with a gelatinous sheath. The morphology of this species appears to be relatively uniform between different collections. Observations made from various isolates revealed, however, that the gelatinous sheaths of ascospores varied between different collections. Ascospores of some collections were clothed with a gelatinous sheath, whereas the majority of collections lacked gelatinous sheaths. Ascospore dimensions of the various collections varied , but all fell into the range of Zogg’s description of the species. The presence of three distinctly layered peridium emphasized by Barr (1987) for recognition of members of the Hysteriaceae was not commonly observed. However, a middle layer of 1 – 2 cells thick was found between the outer & inner layers.”

Van der Linde (1992): “Fruitbodies are arranged in small groups, superficial elongated or linear, tapering towards the ends, sometimes curved, not branched, up to 1.2 x 0.3mm. Pseudoparaphyses hyaline, filiform, septate, slightly thickened apically & branched near the top to form an epithecium. Asci cylindric-clavate, irregularly biseriate, 8-spored, 120 – 130 (140) x 25 – 30um. These dimensions are slightly larger than those given by Zogg (1962) for this species. Ascospores hyaline, oval to oblong, dictyosporous with up to 7- transverse septa & 1- or 2- longitudinal septa. Mounted in erythrosine, a gelatinous layer is visible around especially the younger spores, 24 – 28 x 10 – 12um (excluding gelatinous layer).”
webassets/G.-praelonga-web.jpg webassets/G.-praelonga_web.jpg webassets/Glp-praelinga-spores-web.jpg webassets/Glp_praelonga_Zogg_web.jpg
Gloniopsis praelonga (Schw.) Zogg. From left: Zogg (1962) pg. 51; Ellis & Ellis (1985); Zogg (1962), pgs. 49, 131.

Gloniopsis argentinensis Speg.

Spegazzini. 1902. Anales Mus. Nac. Bs. As. (ser.3, v.1) 8: 74.

Name validated by Lorenzo & Messuti (1998): “Hysterothecia gregarious to confluent, erumpent to superficial, striated, sub-carbonaceous, elliptic with obruse extremes, straight, arranged following the direction of the wood fibers, 0.86 – 1.66 (-2.65) x 0.26 – 0.57 mm. Pseudoparaphyses hyaline, abundant, septate, filiform. Asci cylindrical, octospored, 158 – 197 x 16.5 – 20 μm. Ascospores hyaline, irregularly biseriate, with 7 transverse septa & 1 – 2 longitudinal septa, widely ellipsoid, 20 – 26 x 9 – 12 μm. Collected by Spegazzini on naked branches of Eucalyptus globules in La Plata, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.” It is hard to see what differentiates this from G. praelonga. In my opionion, this taxon should probably be synonimized with G. praelonga.



Gloniopsis macrospora N. Amano

Amano, N. 1983. Trans. mycol. Soc. Japan 24 : 291.

Amano (1983): “Ascomata elongated or oval with obtuse ends, dispersed or aggregated, superficial with immersed base, straight or curved, sometimes branched, slightly rounded or flattened above, sometimes finely longitudinally striate, opening by a longitudinal slit, carbonacous, black, 0.8 – 4.0mm long, 0.3 – 0.5mm wide, 0.2 – 0.3mm high. In cross section tissues of basal walls composed of thick walled, polygonal, hyaline or brown cells forming textura angularis; cells 2 – 5um in diam., thick-walled at both margins, elongated, lying almost parallel, 5 – 11 x 3 – 5um; tissues of lateral walls of textura epidermoidea; lateral walls 40 – 80um thick. Pseudoparaphyses filiform, branched, anastomosed; intercalary cells sometimes becoming oblong ellipsoid or subglobose, hyaline, 1.0 – 1.6 (-2.8)um thick, enlarged to 2.0um in diam. at the apex. Asci bitunicate, clavate, stipitate, 4- or 8-spored, 120 – 210 x 28 – 40um. Ascospores irregularly biseriate, ellipsoid, hyaline, becoming brown later, with the upper half generally wider than the lower half, sometimes surrounded by gelatinous sheath, with 7 – 13 transverse septa and 1 – 3 longitudinal septa, constricted at the median transverse septum, 25 – 49 x 8 – 17um. On dead branches of broad-leaved trees. Japan. G. macrospora resembles G. praelonga, but differs in ascospore and ascus size.”

Gloniopsis macrospora N. Amano. From Amano (1983), pg. 292.